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Startup Act of 2011

S. 1965, Introduced in Senate on by Sen. Jerry Moran (R-KS)
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Full Text Below is a simple rendition of Congress' official bill text.

1.Short title; table of contents
(a)Short titleThis Act may be cited as the Startup Act of 2011.
(b)Table of contentsThe table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings.
Sec. 3. Economic impact of major rules.
Sec. 4. Permanent full exclusion applicable to qualified small business stock.
Sec. 5. Income tax credit for certain startup small businesses.
Sec. 6. Study of regulatory impact of possible Sarbanes-Oxley reform.
Sec. 7. Accelerated commercialization of university-based research.
Sec. 8. Conditional permanent resident status for aliens with an advanced degree in a STEM field.
Sec. 9. Alien entrepreneurs.
Sec. 10. Biennial State startup business report.
Sec. 11. New business formation report.
2.FindingsCongress makes the following findings:
(1)Achieving economic recovery will require the formation and growth of new companies.
(2)Between 1980 and 2005, companies less than 5 years old accounted for nearly all net job creation in the United States.
(3)New firms in the United States create an average of 3,000,000 jobs per year.
(4)To get Americans back to work, entrepreneurs must be free to pursue their ideas, form companies, and hire employees.
(5)State and local policies affect entrepreneurs’ ability to start new businesses and grow existing businesses.
3.Economic impact of major rulesSection 553 of title 5, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
(f)Required review before issuance of major rules
(1)In generalBefore issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register regarding the issuance of a proposed major rule, the head of the Federal agency or independent regulatory agency seeking to issue the rule shall complete a review that—
(A)analyzes the problem that the proposed rule intends to address, including—
(i)the specific market failure, such as externalities, market power, or lack of information, that justifies such rule; or
(ii)any other specific problem, such as the failures of public institutions, that justifies such rule;
(B)analyzes the expected impact of the proposed rule on the ability of new businesses to form and expand;
(C)identifies the expected impact of the proposed rule on State, local, and tribal governments, including the availability of resources—
(i)to carry out the mandates imposed by the rule on such government entities; and
(ii)to minimize the burdens that uniquely or significantly affect such governmental entities, consistent with achieving regulatory objectives;
(D)identifies any conflicting or duplicative regulations;
(E)determines—
(i)if existing laws or regulations created, or contributed to, the problem that the new rule is intended to correct; and
(ii)if the laws or regulations referred to in clause (i) should be modified to more effectively achieve the intended goal of the rule; and
(F)includes the cost-benefit analysis described in paragraph (2).
(2)Cost-benefit analysisA cost-benefit analysis described in this paragraph shall include—
(A)
(i)an assessment, including the underlying analysis, of benefits anticipated from the proposed rule, such as— (I)promoting the efficient functioning of the economy and private markets; (II)enhancing health and safety; (III)protecting the natural environment; and (IV)eliminating or reducing discrimination or bias; and
(ii)the quantification of the benefits described in clause (i), to the extent feasible;
(B)
(i)an assessment, including the underlying analysis, of costs anticipated from the proposed rule, such as— (I)the direct costs to the Federal Government to administer the rule; (II)the direct costs to businesses and others to comply with the rule; and (III)any adverse effects on the efficient functioning of the economy, private markets (including productivity, employment, and competitiveness), health, safety, and the natural environment; and
(ii)the quantification of the costs described in clause (i), to the extent feasible;
(C)
(i)an assessment, including the underlying analysis, of costs and benefits of potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives to the proposed rule, which have been identified by the agency or by the public, including taking reasonably viable nonregulatory actions; and
(ii)an explanation of why the proposed rule is preferable to the alternatives identified under clause (i).
(3)ReportBefore issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register regarding the issuance of a proposed major rule, the head of the Federal agency seeking to issue the rule shall—
(A)submit the results of the review conducted under paragraph (1) to—
(i)Congress; and
(ii)the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Office of Management and Budget; and
(B)post the results of the review conducted under paragraph (1) on a publicly available website.
(4)Judicial reviewAny determinations made, or other actions taken, by an agency or independent regulatory agency under this subsection shall not be subject to judicial review.
(5)Defined termIn this subsection the term major rule has the meaning given the term in section 804.
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4.Permanent full exclusion applicable to qualified small business stock
(a)Permanent full exclusion
(1)In generalSubsection (a) of section 1202 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to read as follows:
(a)ExclusionIn the case of a taxpayer other than a corporation, gross income shall not include 100 percent of any gain from the sale or exchange of qualified small business stock held for more than 5 years.
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(2)Conforming amendments
(A)The heading for section 1202 of such Code is amended by striking partial.
(B)The item relating to section 1202 in the table of sections for part I of subchapter P of chapter 1 of such Code is amended by striking Partial exclusion and inserting Exclusion.
(C)Section 1223(13) of such Code is amended by striking 1202(a)(2),.
(b)Repeal of minimum tax preference
(1)In generalSubsection (a) of section 57 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by striking paragraph (7).
(2)Technical amendmentSubclause (II) of section 53(d)(1)(B)(ii) of such Code is amended by striking , (5), and (7) and inserting and (5).
(c)Repeal of 28 percent capital gains rate on qualified small business stock
(1)In generalSubparagraph (A) of section 1(h)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to read as follows:
(A)collectibles gain, over
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(2)Conforming amendments
(A)Section 1(h) of such Code is amended by striking paragraph (7).
(B)
(i)Section 1(h) of such Code is amended by redesignating paragraphs (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), and (13) as paragraphs (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), and (12), respectively.
(ii)Sections 163(d)(4)(B), 854(b)(5), 857(c)(2)(D) of such Code are each amended by striking section 1(h)(11)(B) and inserting section 1(h)(10)(B).
(iii)The following sections of such Code are each amended by striking section 1(h)(11) and inserting section 1(h)(10): (I)Section 301(f)(4). (II)Section 306(a)(1)(D). (III)Section 584(c). (IV)Section 702(a)(5). (V)Section 854(a). (VI)Section 854(b)(2).
(iv)The heading of section 857(c)(2) is amended by striking 1(h)(11) and inserting 1(h)(10).
(d)Effective dateThe amendments made by this section apply to stock acquired after December 31, 2011.
5.Income tax credit for certain startup small businesses
(a)In generalSection 6401 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
(c)Income tax credit for startup small businesses
(1)In generalIn the case of a qualified small business (within the meaning of section 1202(d)), if the tax imposed by subtitle A for any taxable year exceeds the credits allowable under chapter 1 for such taxable year, an amount equal to the lesser of—
(A)the applicable percentage of the amount of such excess, or
(B)$5,000,000,
shall be considered an overpayment with respect to such taxable year.
(2)Applicable percentageFor purposes of this section, the applicable percentage is 100 percent for the first taxable year described in paragraph (1) of the qualified small business, 50 percent for each of the 2 succeeding taxable years, and zero percent thereafter.
(3)Election not to claim creditThis subsection shall not apply to a taxpayer for any taxable year if such taxpayer elects to have this subsection not apply for the first taxable year described in paragraph (1).
(4)RegulationsThe Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including—
(A)regulations to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this subsection through split-ups, shell corporations, partnerships, or otherwise, and
(B)regulations to provide for the proper determination of the first taxable year of a qualified small business.
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(b)Conforming amendmentSection 6501(m) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by striking or 51(j) and inserting 51(j), or 6401(c).
(c)Effective dateThe amendments made by this section shall apply to the first taxable year described in section 6401(c)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) of any qualified small business, but only if such first taxable year begins after the date of the enactment of this Act.
6.Study of regulatory impact of possible Sarbanes-Oxley reformIn carrying out the study and report required by section 989I of the Investor Protection and Securities Reform Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–203, 124 Stat. 1948), the Comptroller General of the United States shall—
(1)assess the costs and benefits to prospective investors, shareholders, and securities markets of allowing smaller issuers to opt out of the requirements of section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)); and
(2)in assessing such costs and benefits, consider the feasibility, costs, and benefits to prospective investors, shareholders, and securities markets of placing an asterisk or some other designation on the ticker symbol and other relevant company disclosures of such issuers, indicating that the issuer has elected not to comply with section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)).
7.Accelerated commercialization of university-based research
(a)DefinitionsIn this section:
(1)CommitteeThe term Committee means the Committee on Research Commercialization Improvement established under subsection (c).
(2)Extramural budgetThe term extramural budget means the sum of the total obligations minus amounts obligated for such activities by employees of the agency in or through Government-owned, Government-operated facilities, except that for the Department of Energy it shall not include amounts obligated for atomic energy defense programs solely for weapons activities or for naval reactor programs, and except that for the Agency for International Development it shall not include amounts obligated solely for general institutional support of international research centers or for grants to foreign countries.
(3)Institution of higher educationThe term institution of higher education has the meaning given the term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
(4)Research or research and developmentThe term research or research and development means any activity that is—
(A)a systematic, intensive study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the subject studied;
(B)a systematic study directed specifically toward applying new knowledge to meet a recognized need; or
(C)a systematic application of knowledge toward the production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements.
(5)SecretaryThe term Secretary means the Secretary of Commerce.
(b)Grant program authorized
(1)In generalEach Federal agency that has an extramural budget for research or research and development that is in excess of $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2017, shall transfer 0.15 percent of such extramural budget for each of such fiscal years to the Secretary to enable the Secretary to carry out a grant program in accordance with this subsection.
(2)Grants
(A)Awarding of grants
(i)In generalFrom funds transferred under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall use the criteria developed by the Committee to award grants to institutions of higher education, including consortia of institutions of higher education, for initiatives to improve commercialization and transfer of technology.
(ii)Request for proposalsNot later than 30 days after the Committee submits the recommendations for criteria to the Secretary under subsection (c)(4)(B), and annually thereafter for each fiscal year for which the grant program is authorized, the Secretary shall release a request for proposals.
(iii)ApplicationsEach institution of higher education that desires to receive a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Secretary not later than 90 days after the Secretary releases the request for proposals under clause (ii).
(iv)Committee review (I)In generalThe Secretary shall submit each application received under clause (iii) to the Committee for Committee review. (II)RecommendationsThe Committee shall review each application received under subclause (I) and submit recommendations for grant awards to the Secretary, including funding recommendations for each proposal. (III)Public releaseThe Committee shall publicly release any recommendations made under subclause (II). (IV)Consideration of recommendationsIn awarding grants under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into consideration the recommendations of the Committee under subclause (II).
(B)Commercialization accelerator grants
(i)In generalThe Secretary shall award grants to support institutions of higher education pursuing specific innovative initiatives to improve an institution’s capacity to commercialize faculty research that can be widely adopted if the research yields measurable results.
(ii)Content of proposalsGrants shall be awarded under this subparagraph to proposals demonstrating the capacity for accelerated commercialization, proof-of-concept proficiency, and translating scientific discoveries and cutting-edge inventions into technological innovations and new companies. In particular, grant funds shall seek to support innovative approaches to achieving these goals that can be replicated by other institutions of higher education if the innovative approaches are successful.
(iii)Assessment of successGrants awarded under this subparagraph shall use criteria for assessing the success of programs through the establishment of technical milestones.
(C)Collaborative commercialization grants
(i)In generalThe Secretary shall award grants to support institutions of higher education pursuing initiatives that allow faculty to directly approach technology transfer programs outside of their institution of employment in an effort to commercialize research breakthroughs.
(ii)Content of initiativesInitiatives eligible to be supported with grant funds awarded under this subparagraph shall only include those— (I)that have a licensing revenue sharing agreement between the institution of higher education where the research originates and the institution that commercializes the research; and (II)for which the first right of refusal in commercializing research belongs to the institution of higher education where the research originates.
(3)TerminationThe Secretary shall have the authority to terminate grant funding to an institution of higher education in accordance with the process and performance metrics recommended by the Committee.
(4)Limitations
(A)Project management costsA grant recipient may use not more than 10 percent of grant funds awarded under this subsection for the purpose of funding project management costs of the grant program.
(B)Supplement, not supplantAn institution of higher education that receives a grant under this subsection shall use the grant funds to supplement, and not supplant, non-Federal funds that would, in the absence of such grant funds, be made available for activities described in this section.
(5)Unspent fundsAny funds transferred to the Secretary under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year that are not expended by the end of such fiscal year may be expended in any subsequent fiscal year through fiscal year 2017. Any funds transferred under paragraph (1) that are remaining at the end of the grant program's authorization under this subsection shall be transferred to the Treasury for deficit reduction.
(c)Committee on research commercialization improvement
(1)In generalNot later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall—
(A)establish the Committee on Research Commercialization Improvement; and
(B)appoint the members of the Committee described in subparagraphs (A) through (J) of paragraph (2).
(2)CompositionThe Committee shall be composed of 15 members, of whom—
(A)1 member shall be an administrator at a private institution of higher education;
(B)1 member shall be an administrator at a land-grant college or university (as defined in section 1404 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103));
(C)1 member shall be an administrator at a public institution of higher education;
(D)1 member shall be a tenured faculty member at an institution of higher education, whose research has been commercialized;
(E)1 member shall be a qualified venture capitalist, defined as an individual who is employed by a company that—
(i)is classified as a venture capital operating company under section 2510.3–101(d) of title 29, Code of Federal Regulations;
(ii)is based in the United States;
(iii)is comprised of partners, the majority of whom are United States citizens;
(iv)has capital commitments of not less than $10,000,000;
(v)has been operating for not less than 2 years; and
(vi)has made not less than 2 investments of not less than $500,000 during each of the most recent 2 years;
(F)1 member shall be a qualified Angel Investor, defined as an individual who—
(i)is an accredited investor (as defined in section 230.501(a) of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations);
(ii)is a United States citizen; and
(iii)has made not less than 2 equity investments of not less than $50,000 in each of the previous 3 years;
(G)1 member shall be a small business owner or executive at a company that—
(i)is based in the United States; and
(ii)has worked with an institution of higher education in commercializing research;
(H)1 member shall be a chief executive officer at an innovative and growing company that is based in the United States;
(I)2 members shall be individuals who work in a technology transfer office at an institution of higher education;
(J)1 member shall be an individual who works in a technology transfer office at a company in the technology sector that generates at least $50,000,000 in revenue annually;
(K)1 member shall be a technology transfer expert to be nominated by the National Governors Association;
(L)1 member shall be a nationally recognized technology transfer expert who is not employed at the time of their service on the Committee by a public or private institution of higher education;
(M)1 member shall be nominated by the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship; and
(N)1 member shall be the Director of the National Science Foundation.
(3)Chair
(A)In generalThe Director of the National Science Foundation shall serve as the Chair of the Committee.
(B)Replacement of membersThe Director of the National Science Foundation, in the Director's capacity as Chair of the Committee, shall appoint a replacement for any member described in subparagraphs (A) through (M) of paragraph (2) who leaves membership on the Committee.
(4)Duties
(A)Development of criteriaNot later than 120 days after the Committee is established and all of the members of the Committee are appointed, the Committee shall convene and develop recommendations for criteria in awarding grants to institutions of higher education under subsection (b).
(B)Submission to Commerce and publicly releasedThe Committee shall—
(i)submit the recommendations described in subparagraph (A) to the Secretary; and
(ii)release the recommendations to the public.
(C)Majority voteThe recommendations submitted by the Committee, as described in this paragraph, shall be determined by a majority vote of Committee members.
(D)Performance metricsThe Committee shall develop and provide to the Secretary recommendations on performance metrics to be used to evaluate grants awarded under subsection (b).
(5)Powers
(A)HearingsThe Committee may hold such hearings, meet and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Committee considers advisable to carry out this section.
(B)Information from Federal agencies
(i)In generalThe Committee may secure directly from a Federal agency such information as the Committee considers necessary to carry out this section.
(ii)Provision of informationOn request of the Chair of the Committee, the head of the agency shall provide the information to the Committee.
(C)Postal servicesThe Committee may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other agencies of the Federal Government.
(6)Committee personnel matters
(A)Compensation of membersMembers of the Committee shall not receive any compensation for service on the Committee.
(B)Travel expensesA member of the Committee shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from the home or regular place of business of the member in the performance of the duties of the Committee.
(C)Staff
(i)In generalThe Chair of the Committee may, without regard to the civil service laws (including regulations), appoint and terminate an executive director and such other additional personnel as are necessary to enable the Committee to perform the duties of the Committee.
(ii)Confirmation of executive directorThe employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Committee.
(iii)Compensation (I)In generalExcept as provided in subparagraph (B), the Chair of the Committee may fix the compensation of the executive director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates.
(iv)Maximum rate of payThe rate of pay for the executive director and other personnel shall not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code.
(7) Evaluation
(A)In generalNot later than 180 days before the date that the grant program authorized under subsection (b) expires, the Committee shall conduct an evaluation of the effect that the grant program is having on accelerating the commercialization of faculty research.
(B)InclusionsThe evaluation shall include—
(i)the recommendation of the Committee as to whether the grant program should be continued or terminated;
(ii)quantitative data related to the effect, if any, that the grant program has had on faculty research commercialization; and
(iii)a description of lessons learned in administering the grant program, and how those lessons could be applied to future efforts to accelerate commercialization of faculty research.
(C)AvailabilityUpon completion of the evaluation, the evaluation shall be made available on a public website and submitted to Congress. The Secretary shall notify all institutions of higher education when the evaluation is published and how it can be accessed.
8.Conditional permanent resident status for aliens with an advanced degree in a STEM field
(a)In generalTitle II of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 216A the following:
216B.Conditional permanent resident status for aliens with an advanced degree in a STEM field
(a)In generalNotwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Secretary of Homeland Security may adjust the status of not more than 50,000 aliens who have earned a master’s degree or a doctorate degree at an institution of higher education in a STEM field to that of an alien conditionally admitted for permanent residence and authorize each alien granted such adjustment of status to remain in the United States—
(1)for up to 1 year after the expiration of the alien’s student visa under section 101(a)(15)(F)(i) if the alien is diligently searching for an opportunity to become actively engaged in a STEM field; and
(2)indefinitely if the alien remains actively engaged in a STEM field.
(b)Application for conditional permanent resident statusEvery alien applying for a conditional permanent resident status under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary of Homeland Security before the expiration of the alien's student visa in such form and manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation.
(c)Ineligibility for Federal Government assistanceAn alien granted conditional permanent resident status under this section shall not be eligible, while in such status, for—
(1)any unemployment compensation (as defined in section 85(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986); or
(2)any form of assistance or benefit described in section 403(a) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1613(a)).
(d)Effect on naturalization residency requirementAn alien granted conditional permanent resident status under this section shall be deemed to have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence for purposes of meeting the 5-year residency requirement set forth in section 316(a)(1).
(e)Removal of conditionThe Secretary of Homeland Security shall remove the conditional basis of an alien’s conditional permanent resident status under this section on the date that is 5 years after the date such status was granted if the alien maintained his or her eligibility for such status during the entire 5-year period.
(f)DefinitionsIn this section:
(1)The term actively engaged in a STEM field
(A)means—
(i)gainfully employed in a for-profit business or nonprofit organization in the United States in a STEM field;
(ii)teaching 1 or more STEM field courses at an institution of higher education; or
(iii)employed by a Federal, State, or local government entity; and
(B)includes any period of up to 6 months during which the alien does not meet the requirement under subparagraph (A) if such period was immediately preceded by a 1-year period during which the alien met the requirement under subparagraph (A).
(2)The term institution of higher education has the meaning given the term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
(3)The term STEM field means any field of study or occupation included on the most recent STEM-Designated Degree Program List published in the Federal Register by the Department of Homeland Security (as described in section 214.2(f)(11)(C)(2) of title 8, Code of Federal Regulations).
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(b)Clerical amendmentThe table of contents for the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.) is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 216A the following:
Sec. 216B. Conditional permanent resident status for aliens with an advanced degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics.
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(c)Government Accountability Office study
(1)In generalNot later than 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a report to Congress on the alien college graduates granted immigrant status under section 216B of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as added by subsection (a).
(2)ContentsThe report described in paragraph (1) shall include—
(A)the number of aliens described in paragraph (1) who have earned a master’s degree, broken down by the number of such degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics;
(B)the number of aliens described in paragraph (1) who have earned a doctorate degree, broken down by the number of such degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics;
(C)the number of aliens described in paragraph (1) who have founded a business in the United States in a STEM field;
(D)the number of aliens described in paragraph (1) who are employed in the United States in a STEM field, broken down by employment sector (for profit, nonprofit, or government); and
(E)the number of aliens described in paragraph (1) who are employed by an institution of higher education.
(3)DefinitionsThe terms institution of higher education and STEM field have the meaning given such terms in section 216B(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as added by subsection (a).
9.Alien entrepreneurs
(a)Qualified alien entrepreneurs
(1)Admission as immigrantsChapter 1 of title II of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following:
210A.Qualified alien entrepreneurs
(a)Admission as immigrantsThe Secretary of Homeland Security, in accordance with the provisions of this section and section 216A, may issue a conditional immigrant visa to not more than 75,000 qualified alien entrepreneurs.
(b)Application for conditional permanent resident statusEvery alien applying for a conditional immigrant visa under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary of Homeland Security in such form and manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation.
(c)RevocationIf, during the 4-year period beginning on the date that an alien is granted a visa under this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that such alien is no longer a qualified alien entrepreneur, the Secretary shall—
(1)revoke such visa; and
(2)notify the alien that the alien—
(A)may voluntarily depart from the United States in accordance to section 240B; or
(B)will be subject to removal proceedings under section 240 if the alien does not depart from the United States not later than 6 months after receiving such notification.
(d)Removal of conditional basisThe Secretary shall remove the conditional basis of the status of an alien issued an immigrant visa under this section on that date that is 4 years after the date on which such visa was issued if such visa was not revoked pursuant to subsection (c).
(e)DefinitionsIn this section:
(1)The term full-time employee means a United States citizen or legal permanent resident who is paid by the new business entity registered by a qualified alien entrepreneur at a rate that is comparable to the median income of employees in the region.
(2)The term institution of higher education has the meaning given the term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
(3)The term qualified alien entrepreneur means an alien who—
(A)at the time the alien applies for an immigrant visa under this section—
(i)is lawfully present in the United States;
(ii)(I)holds a nonimmigrant visa pursuant to section 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b); or (II)has completed or will complete a graduate level degree in a STEM field from an institution of higher education;
(B)during the 1-year period beginning on the date the alien is granted a visa under this section—
(i)registers at least 1 new business entity in a State;
(ii)employs, at such business entity in the United States, at least 2 full-time employees who are not relatives of the alien; and
(iii)invests, or raises capital investment of, not less than $100,000 in such business entity; and
(C)during the 3-year period beginning on the last day of the 1-year period described in paragraph (2), employs, at such business entity in the United States, an average of at least 5 full-time employees who are not relatives of the alien.
(4)The term STEM field means any field of study or occupation included on the most recent STEM-Designated Degree Program List published in the Federal Register by the Department of Homeland Security (as described in section 214.2(f)(11)(C)(2) of title 8, Code of Federal Regulations).
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(2)Table of contents amendmentThe table of contents in the first section of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.) is amended by adding after the item relating to section 210 the following:
Sec. 210A. Qualified alien entrepreneurs.
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(b)Conditional permanent resident statusSection 216A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1186b) is amended—
(1)by striking Attorney General each place such term appears and inserting Secretary of Homeland Security;
(2)in subsection (b)(1)(C), by striking 203(b)(5), and inserting 203(b)(5) or 210A, as appropriate,;
(3)in subsection (c)(1), by striking alien entrepreneur must each place such term appears and inserting alien entrepreneur shall;
(4)in subsection (d)(1)(B), by striking the period at the end and inserting or 210A, as appropriate.; and
(5)in subsection (f)(1), by striking the period at the end and inserting or 210A..
(c)Government Accountability Office study
(1)In generalNot later than 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a report to Congress on the qualified alien entrepreneurs granted immigrant status under section 210A of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as added by subsection (a).
(2)ContentsThe report described in paragraph (1) shall include information regarding—
(A)the number of qualified alien entrepreneurs who have received immigrant status under section 210A of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as added by subsection (a), listed by country of origin;
(B)the localities in which such qualified alien entrepreneurs have initially settled;
(C)whether such qualified alien entrepreneurs generally remain in the localities in which they initially settle;
(D)the types of commercial enterprises that such qualified alien entrepreneurs have established; and
(E)the types and number of jobs created by such qualified alien entrepreneurs.
10.Biennial State startup business report
(a)Data collectionThe Secretary of Commerce shall regularly compile information from each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia on State laws that affect the formation and growth of new businesses within the State or District.
(b)ReportNot later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary, using data compiled under subsection (a), shall prepare a report that—
(1)analyzes the economic effect of State and District laws that either encourage or inhibit business formation and growth; and
(2)ranks the States and the District based on the effectiveness with which their laws foster new business creation and economic growth.
(c)DistributionThe Secretary shall—
(1)submit each report prepared under subsection (b) to Congress; and
(2)make each report available to the public on the Department of Commerce’s website.
(d)Inclusion of large metropolitan areasNot later than 90 days after the submission of the first report under this section, the Secretary of Commerce shall submit to Congress a study on the feasibility and advisability of including, in future reports, information about the effect of local laws and ordinances on the formation and growth of new businesses in large metropolitan areas within the United States.
(e)Authorization of appropriationsThere are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.
11.New business formation report
(a)In generalThe Secretary of Commerce shall regularly compile quantitative and qualitative information on businesses in the United States that are not more than 1 year old.
(b)Data collectionThe Secretary shall—
(1)regularly compile information from the Bureau of the Census’ business register on new business formation in the United States; and
(2)conduct quarterly surveys of business owners who start a business during the 1-year period ending on the date on which such survey is conducted to gather qualitative information about the factors that influenced their decision to start the business.
(c)Random samplingIn conducting surveys under subsection (b)(2), the Secretary may use random sampling to identify a group of business owners who are representative of all the business owners described in subsection (b)(2).
(d)BenefitsThe Secretary shall inform business owners selected to participate in a survey conducted under this section of the benefits they would receive from participating in the survey.
(e)Voluntary participationBusiness owners selected to participate in a survey conducted under this section may decline to participate without penalty.
(f)ReportNot later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 3 months thereafter, the Secretary shall use the data compiled under subsection (b) to prepare a report that—
(1)lists the aggregate number of new businesses formed in the United States;
(2)lists the aggregate number of persons employed by new businesses formed in the United States;
(3)analyzes the payroll of new businesses formed in the United States;
(4)summarizes the data collected under subsection (b); and
(5)identifies the most effective means by which government officials can encourage the formation and growth of new businesses in the United States.
(g)DistributionThe Secretary shall—
(1)submit each report prepared under subsection (f) to Congress; and
(2)make each report available to the public on the Department of Commerce’s website.
(h)Authorization of appropriationsThere are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.